What is a giclee print?
This is an excellent question. Nowadays, with advances in technology and digital printing it’s more important than ever to know the difference between a giclee and a digital print, especially if you intend to purchase a fine art reproduction.
What is a Giclee?
Giclee is the first and only fine art print to be made with an ink jet printer. Pronounced, zhee’clay, the word comes from the French, meaning to spray, which is exactly what an ink jet printer does.
It was a major break through in the fine art community when giclee reproductions were introduced to the market in the late 1980s . The quality of a giclee print is far superior to all other forms of printing. It fact, when done correctly, it’s the closest an artist can get to matching their original 2-D artwork. For art lovers who wanted to collect fine art but couldn’t afford an original, giclee reproductions quickly became a popular alternative to purchase.
Before I go any further in my explanation, I must clarify what I mean when I use the words print and reproduction because I would never want to offend any printmakers and the amazing art they create with their pulled prints.
Block Print by Peter Nevins
The Difference Between a
Giclee Print and Hand Pulled Print
Giclee prints are not to be confused with or even put in the same category as a pulled print. It’s important to recognize a pulled print is an original piece of fine art and not a copy. Pulled prints are made by printmakers from a master image they create themselves. The master image is usually made in the form of a plate, block, or stone, also known as etchings, block prints, and lithographs. Printmaking can take years to master, and each pulled print created by the printmaker is a unique piece of handmade art to be valued and treasured as an original.
Giclee and hand pulled prints are sometimes grouped together due to the misinterpretation of the words print and reproduction. The meanings of these words are often confused when taken out of context. Some believe reproduction is a copy of an original, and print refers to a pulled print which is, as I stated above, an original.
I consider the words reproduction and print interchangeable when used to reference to a giclee. So, for the purpose of this post both these words refer to a copy of original art.
The Difference Between a
Giclee and Digital Print
Simply put, it all boils down to the longevity of the art.
Before the internet, it was common to decorate the walls of your home with original artwork. There really was no other way to decorate your house if you wanted art on your walls. Choosing between original art and a fine art print use to be the only option a buyer had to think about, and if they had printing and framing needs; then, they went to a trained professional.
That is not the case any more!
The explosion of smart phones, devices, and home office printers along with the internet has given the ability to print any image imaginable into the hands of everyone. A person can simply print an image from their phone or computer on their home printer. This type of printing is called digital printing. Digital printing may be convenient; unfortunately, it’s not designed to last. The qualities of the materials used to make these prints are not archival. Within weeks noticeable damage will occur to digital prints from the sun and the humidity.
It’s easy to waste a lot of money on art prints that won’t last these days, which is why it’s so important to make sure the fine art you purchase is made from archival materials, especial if you are collecting art from a professional artist.
The 4 Major Criteria Needed to Make a
Giclee prints can be made to reproduce any form of 2-D artwork, such as oil, acrylic, and watercolor paintings. In order to create a giclee print, four major criteria must be met during the printing process:
Resolution- The original piece of art should be professionally scanned or photograph at 300 dpi or higher resolution.
Ink- The ink must be pigmented (not dye). There also needs to be 8 or more different colored pigmented inks used in the printer.
Paper- The paper must be 100% archival. With that said there are a wide variety of materials available for giclee printing (as long as it’s archival) such as: canvas, gloss paper, mat paper, velvet paper, watercolor textured paper, and specialty artisan paper.
Printer- The printer itself must be a wide format ink jet printer. (This is not your everyday household office printer)
In the early 90s almost all giclee prints were made at specialty fine art print shops. These shops had the means to scan or photograph the original art, the software and experience to color correct the image for printing, and all the proper tools and materials for creating museum quality giclee reproduction. The quality of these prints were exquisite but costly.
Then, in the early 2000 smaller wide format fine art printers entered the market from companies like Epson, and it was a game changer for full time artist like me because we could now invest in our own equipment and have greater control over the quality of our fine art prints.
If you would like to learn what it take to make your own giclee prints check out my post: Equipment and Materials Needed to Make Archival Giclee Prints
The upside to this capability was it allowed us to cut out the middle man, and sell direct to our customers at a lower price, and the downside is it’s now harder then ever to detect if a fine art print is a true giclee because it’s so easy to substitute out any of the four criteria mentioned above.
Not All Artist Create Fine Art Prints
Because of the vast options of materials and tools that are now available for printing, I have notice an increase of artist creating prints that are not made from archival materials. There are a couple of reason digital printing is on the rise from professional fine artist, which is personally alarming to me.
- 1st reason can be chalked up to the artist lack of experience and education of reproducing fine art.
- 2nd reason is simply because the artist is looking to save money.
Some artist have discovered they can save money by substituting out the expensive pigmented inks for cheaper dye inks in their wide formatted printer.
Other artist also save money by not printing on archival paper.
I also see artist outsourcing their printing to companies online that are not specializing in reproducing fine art prints. They’re using print on demand services instead. These places are designed to handle high volume of digital printing needs, not giclee. Some of these companies can even drop ship directly to the customer, which means customers will not get a signed print from the artist. These companies are fantastic for individuals and businesses to use for their printing needs, but for a professional artist selling fine art it’s disingenuous.
I take great pride in knowing I create fine art archival giclee prints, so substituting materials will never be an option for me.
Unfortunately, not all artist share my beliefs.
IMPORTANT: If you’re shopping for a fine art reproduction it’s important to ask:
- Where was the print made?
- What kind of ink was used to make the print? (Remember it should be pigmented)
- Is the paper or canvas 100% cotton? (That would mean it’s archival)
- It’s also good to ask if the print has been signed and dated by the artist.
If the artist can’t answer these questions it’s likely they aren’t using archival materials, and are selling a digital prints instead of a giclee prints.